Beijing population change: these five points are worth paying attention to

On May 19, the main data results of Beijing’s Seventh National Census were officially released. The results show that at 0:00 on November 1, 2020, the city’s permanent resident population is 21.893 million. Compared with 1961.22 million in 2010 (the sixth national census data, the same below), the number of permanent residents increased by 2.281 million in ten years, with an average annual increase of 228.8 million, with an average annual increase of 1.1%. It is 2.7 percentage points lower than the average annual growth rate of 3.8% from 2000 to 2010.

Resident population growth slows down

“In terms of the total population, the growth of permanent residents has slowed down. Compared with the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of our city has increased by 2.281 million in the past ten years, an increase of 11.6% and an average annual growth of 1.1%, which is lower than the average annual growth rate of 3.8% in the last ten years, and the growth has slowed down. ” Meng Jingwei, deputy leader of Beijing’s Seventh National Census Leading Group and director of Beijing Municipal Bureau of statistics, said at the press conference held on the same day.

Among the permanent residents, 8.418 million people from other provinces and cities came to Beijing, accounting for 38.5% of the permanent residents. Compared with 2010, the number of permanent residents increased by 1.373 million, or 19.5%, with an average annual growth of 1.8%, and the proportion of permanent residents increased by 2.6 percentage points.

From the regional perspective, the permanent population in the central urban area is 10.988 million, accounting for 50.2%. Compared with 2010, the permanent population in the central urban area decreased by 728000, accounting for 9.5% of the total population in the city. The permanent population of the other ten districts is 10.905 million, accounting for 49.8%. In the past ten years, the permanent population has increased by 3.09 million, with an increase of 9.5 percentage points. The regional distribution of population has been further optimized.

Among them, Tongzhou District, Shunyi District and Daxing District have the fastest population growth in the past ten years, with an average annual growth rate of more than 3.5%. It also shows that the population distribution of Beijing has changed from single center to multi center.

The degree of aging is deepening

The aging of population is an important trend of social development, and it is also the basic situation of our country for a long time in the future. According to the census data, there are 2.591 million people aged 0-14 in Beijing, accounting for 11.9%; 15.03 million people aged 15-59, accounting for 68.5%; There are 4.299 million people aged 60 and above, accounting for 19.6%, of which 2.912 million people aged 65 and above, accounting for 13.3%.

Compared with 2010, the proportion of people aged 0-14 increased by 3.3 percentage points; The proportion of population aged 15-59 decreased by 10.4 percentage points; The proportion of people aged 60 and above increased by 7.1 percentage points, of which the proportion of people aged 65 and above increased by 4.6 percentage points, and the degree of population aging further deepened.

“The scale of the elderly population continues to increase, the degree of aging continues to deepen, the quality of the elderly population continues to improve, and the proportion of the young elderly population is 60%. These are the characteristics of the aging population in our city. For Beijing, there are both challenges and opportunities. From the perspective of challenges, the deepening of population aging will increase the burden of family pension and the supply pressure of basic public services. From the perspective of opportunities, the aging population has promoted the development of the elderly industry, and the supply of elderly products and services will also be further expanded. ” Meng Jingwei analysis said.

Continuous improvement of population quality

Judging from the changes in the past decade, the quality of labor resources has improved significantly. Among the working age population aged 16-59, the average length of schooling will increase from 12.2 years in 2010 to 13.3 years in 2020, and the proportion of the population with college education or above will increase from 37.2% in 2010 to 55.7% in 2020.

Among the city’s permanent residents, 9.191 million people have University (college or above) education. Compared with 2010, the number of people with university education increased from 31499 to 41980; The average number of years of education of permanent residents aged 15 and above increased from 11.7 years to 12.6 years; The illiteracy rate decreased from 1.7% to 0.8%. The continuous improvement of population quality will lay the foundation for the high-quality development of the capital.

“From the perspective of future development, we should make efforts from both the supply side and the demand side of labor force to promote the sustained, coordinated and healthy development of population, economy and society.” Meng Jingwei said that on the one hand, it is necessary to further optimize the business environment and attract all kinds of talents to Beijing for development. At the same time, it is necessary to continuously improve the skill level of the labor force and promote the transformation of demographic dividend to talent dividend. On the other hand, we should strengthen scientific and technological innovation, speed up the construction of high-end economic structure, promote the transformation of economic growth mode from factor driven to innovation driven, improve the level of total factor productivity, and alleviate the pressure brought by the reduction of labor resources.

Household size continues to shrink

From the perspective of family structure, the scale of family households continues to shrink. The census results show that the average household size in Beijing is 2.31 people, which is smaller than 2.45 people in 2010. In addition, a total of 9.138 million permanent residents were registered, including 8.231 million family households, accounting for 90.1%; 907000 collective households, accounting for 9.9%. The household population is 19.014 million, accounting for 86.9% of the permanent population; The population of collective households is 2.879 million, accounting for 13.1% of the permanent residents. The miniaturization of family size reflects that the intergenerational relationship of the family is gradually changing to a small and simple family model with husband and wife as the core, and also reflects a series of changes in people’s concept of marriage and child-bearing and Family Rearing Model in the economic and social development.

497000 more men than women

In terms of gender structure, there are 11.195 million male residents, accounting for 51.1%; The female population is 10.698 million, accounting for 48.9%, with 497000 more males than females. The sex ratio of permanent residents (100 females, male to female ratio) has dropped from 106.8 in 2010 to 104.7 in 2020, and the structure of the sex ratio has been further balanced.

“In the past ten years, the main changes in the city’s population are the epitome and embodiment of the city’s economic and social development and population development process, reflecting the city’s new process of fully implementing the strategic positioning of the capital city, implementing the new development concept, Solidly Promoting the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and promoting the capital’s high-quality development and urban transformation and development. These characteristics are in line with the law of population development, It is also a common feature of international big cities at the same stage. ” Meng Jingwei said.

Beijing Business Daily reporter Tao Feng Wang chenting

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